2019 Green-e Verification Report (2018 Data)
Center for Resource Solutions (CRS), through its Green-e® certification programs, certified over 62 million megawatt-hours in retail transactions in 2018, representing an overall increase of 4% compared to 2017 sales. This is the highest number of certified retail MWh to date, and enough to power over half of U.S. households for a month.
Retail sales certified by the Green-e® Energy program reached over 62 million megawatt hours (MWh) in 2018, the highest number of certified retail MWh to date. Green-e® currently certifies nearly 1.5% of the total U.S. electricity mix,1 or enough to power over half of U.S. households for a month. More than half of the installed wind capacity2 in the U.S. is participating in Green-e® Energy certified transactions, and 2018 saw over 3.7 million MWh come from solar generation, almost 80% more than 2017. The majority of the energy supplying certified sales came from facilities less than five years old. In 2018 there were over 1.24 million retail purchasers of Green-e® certified renewable energy, including over 61,000 businesses. 2018 saw increases in sales and customers of certified utility green pricing products, REC products and PPA/VPPA products, and community choice aggregation products, resulting in all-time highs for each of those certification categories—more retail customers than ever before are purchasing Green-e® Energy certified products.
As the global retail standard for carbon offset certification, Green-e® Climate certification brings chain-of-custody oversight to the voluntary offset market. The Green-e® Climate program provides critical retail protections and assurances for buyers, sellers, and project standards, including confidence in product marketing and overall quality.
The Green-e® Climate program certified more than 496,000 carbon offsets in 2018, which is an all-time high for the program. Additionally, more Green-e® Climate certified offsets were sold into international markets than ever before.
Through Green-e® Marketplace, CRS verifies that the renewable energy purchased or generated by participants meet the strict environmental and consumer protection standards of the Green-e® Energy certification program, and that each participant purchases qualifying amounts relative to electricity usage. By participating in Green-e Marketplace, participants are licensed the Green-e® logo for use with their renewable energy claims. Since 1997, the Green-e® logo has served as a nationally recognized symbol to help consumers identify superior, certified environmental commodities.
In 2018, 26 companies participated in the Green-e® Marketplace program, with approximately 700 products certified.
Green-e® Energy is the leading certification program for voluntary renewable energy products in North America. On behalf of consumers buying renewable energy products certified by Green-e® Energy, the program requires that such products undergo an independent annual audit to demonstrate compliance with the Green-e® Energy program’s rigorous consumer protection and environmental standards. The Green-e® Energy program requires that sellers of certified renewable energy products provide full and accurate information to their customers, deliver the renewable energy they promise, and source from renewable energy generators that meet the Green-e® Energy program’s resource eligibility requirements, developed by stakeholders and the independent Green-e® Governance Board over 20 years.
As the public’s awareness of the impacts of pollution arising from electricity generation, energy security issues, and sustainable economic development has risen, the demand for renewable energy has increased greatly, as shown here. In fact, voluntary certified renewable energy sales in the U.S. have increased an average of 13% each year since 2015. When the Green-e® Energy program began in 1997, it was the first certification program of its kind, and it has remained the most respected renewable energy certification program in North America.
Green-e Energy Certified Options
Green-e® Energy certified renewable energy products are sold in the following different options:
Green Pricing Programs. Renewable electricity sold by electric utilities in regulated electricity markets, offered in addition to the renewable electricity included in standard electricity service. Includes Green Tariffs offered to larger commercial or industrial customers.
Competitive Renewable Electricity. Similar to a green pricing program, but sold by an electric service provider (ESP) in a deregulated electricity market.
Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs). A REC represents the non-electricity, renewable attributes of one MWh of renewable electricity generation, including all the environmental attributes, and is a tradable commodity that can be sold separately from the underlying electricity. RECs allow for a larger and more efficient national market for renewable energy. The REC product type includes PPAs for which only the REC portion of the purchase is certified as well as VPPAs.
Community Choice Aggregation. Also known as Municipal Aggregation, CCAs allow cities and counties to aggregate customers in a regulated market within a defined jurisdiction to secure alternative electricity supply contracts on a community-wide basis.
Direct and On-Site Certification. Direct Purchasing is a purchase made directly from renewable generators as an alternative to purchasing from a utility, competitive electricity supplier, or a renewable energy certificate marketer, while On-Site renewable energy is consumed at the same location where it is produced.
Green-e® Energy Participant Overview
352 companies participated in Green-e® Energy in 2018, including 66 sellers offering 70 Green-e® Energy certified REC products, 261 utility green pricing program participants offering 42 certified green pricing programs , 11 competitive electricity suppliers offering 17 certified renewable electricity programs, 9 Community Choice Aggregation sellers offering 10 products, and 5 entities with 6 different certified Direct or Onsite options.
- 3 Phases Renewables
- ACT Commodities Inc. (Amsterdam Capital Trading B.V.)
- AEP Energy
- Agera Energy
- Aggressive Energy
- Alameda Municipal Power
- Alliant Energy
- Ambit Energy, LP
- Ameren Missouri
- Apple, Inc.
- Arcadia Power
- Austin Energy
- Azalea Solar, LLC
- Blue Delta Energy, LLC
- Blue Spruce Energy Services
- Bonneville Environmental Foundation (BEF)
- Calpine Energy Solutions, LLC
- Carbon Solutions Group (CSG)
- CBL Markets
- Champion Energy Marketing, LLC
- City of Palo Alto Utilities (CPAU)
- Clean Power Alliance (CPA)
- CleanChoice Energy
- Clear Energy Brokerage & Consulting, LLC
- Community Energy, Inc.
- Constellation NewEnergy
- Consumers Energy Company
- Cypress Creek Renewables
- Direct Energy
- Dominion Virginia Power
- DTE Energy
- East Bay Community Energy (ECBE)
- East Coast Power & Gas, LLC
- EDF Energy Services
- ENGIE Resources
- First Climate Markets
- FirstEnergy Solutions Corp.
- Good Energy
- Green Mountain Energy Company
- Green Power EMC
- Greenlight Energy Group LLC
- Idaho Power Company
- Indianapolis Power & Light Company (AES)
- J.P. Morgan Ventures Energy Corporation
- Just Energy
- Kiwi Energy
- LG&E and KU Energy
- Liberty Power
- L’Oreal Operations
- Luminant Energy Company, LLC
- Marina Energy
- MC Squared Energy Services
- MCE Clean Energy
- MidAmerican Energy Company Energy Trading
- MidAmerican Energy Services
- Moffett Solar 1, LLC
- MP2 Energy
- Natural Capital Partners
- NextEra Energy Resources, LLC
- North American Power and Gas, LLC (NA Power)
- Northern Indiana Public Service Company (NIPSCO)
- NRG Business Solutions
- OneEnergy Renewables
- Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E)
- Peninsula Clean Energy
- Pine Gate Renewables, LLC
- Platte River Power Authority (PRPA)
- Plymouth Rock Energy
- Portland General Electric (PGE)
- Powerex Corp
- Puget Sound Energy (PSE)
- Reliant Energy
- Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD)
- San Diego Gas & Electric (SDG&E)
- Santee Cooper
- Schneider Electric
- Seattle City Light
- Silicon Valley Clean Energy
- Silicon Valley Power – City of Santa Clara (SVP)
- South Plains Wind Energy II, LLC
- Southern California Edison (SCE)
- SP Cactus Flats Wind Energy LLC
- Spring Power and Gas
- Steelcase Inc.
- Sterling Planet, Inc.
- Stream Energy
- Swiss Carbon Assets
- Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
- TXU Energy
- Vivorex LLC
- We Energies
- Westar Energy, Inc.
- Western Farmers Electric Cooperative
- WGL Energy Services
- WPPI Energy
- Xcel Energy
The Green-e® Energy verification audit and review process protects customers by ensuring that the renewable electricity or RECs purchased and sold by the certified provider were not sold to more than one customer and that only one party has claimed use of that MWh of renewable energy. Replacement RECs are required when supply that has been submitted is ineligible for certification under the Green-e® Renewable Energy Standard for Canada and the United States. Common reasons for ineligible RECs are double claims (meaning another entity in the chain of custody has claimed to be using the renewable energy) and product-specific restrictions (such as variation from the geographic-proximity requirements of electricity products). In 2018, the Green-e® Energy audit identified less than 1,000 MWh of reported supply as ineligible for Green-e® Energy certification which would necessitate procurement of replacement supply by participants. This is due to a sustained market education outreach by Green-e® staff and increased due diligence on the part of Green-e® Energy participants in procuring supply.
The Green-e® Climate program is the global retail standard for carbon offset certification, bringing chain-of-custody oversight to the voluntary offset market. The Green-e® Climate program provides critical retail protections and assurances for buyers, sellers, and project standards, including confidence in product marketing and overall quality.
Certified sales in 2018 reached an all-time high for the program. The Green-e® Climate program certified just over 496,000 metric tons of carbon dioxide-equivalent (mtCO2e) in 2018, up from 270,000 in 2017.
Green-e® Climate Certified Sales (in mtCO2e)
Residential purchases of Green-e® Climate certified offsets grew by almost 6,000 mtCO2e in 2018 while more than 70% of certified sales in 2018 were to commercial buyers. Sales of bundled natural gas-carbon offsets accounted for 5% of overall certified sales. Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) building certification, which requires Green-e® Climate certification (or equivalent) for offsets that can be awarded points for LEED certification, is a primary driver of certified sales. About 82% of certified sales in 2018 were sales for LEED building certification.
International sales of Green-e® Climate certified offsets hit an all-time high in 2018. The total volume of international certified carbon offset sales more than doubled in 2018, from 36,000 in 2017 to almost 88,000 mtCO2e in 2018. However, the number of countries where certified offsets were sold decreased by two, to 18. Buyers were located in Canada, China, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Germany, Hong Kong, India, Ireland, Korea, Mexico, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Singapore, Spain, Thailand, United States, and Uruguay.
International sales of Green-e® Climate certified offsets (in mtCO2e)
Green-e® Climate Bundled Sales
- Unbundled (84%)
- Bundled (16%)
Share of Certified Sales for LEED Building Certification
- LEED (83%)
- Non-LEED (17%)
2018 also saw a more diverse mix of projects provide carbon offsets to Green-e® Climate certified sales. For the first time in the history of the program, landfill gas capture projects were less than half of overall supply, at 45%. This is primarily due to a large increase in the amount of MTCO2e coming from industrial gas abatement projects, from 0 in 2017 to more than 195,000 MTCO2e in 2018. Overall, 28 different projects supplied offsets to Green-e® Climate certified sales; most were landfill gas capture projects (17, or 61%).
MTCO2e by Project Type
- Landfill Gas Capture (45%)
- Renewable Energy (9%)
- Coal Mine Gas Capture (.3%)
- Improved Cook Stoves (.7%)
- Forestry (5%)
- Industrial Gas Abatement (39%)
Count of Unique Projects
- Landfill Gas Capture (61%)
- Renewable Energy (14%)
- Coal Mine Gas Capture (3%)
- Improved Cook Stoves (4%)
- Forestry (11%)
- Industrial Gas Abatement (7%)
The Green-e® Marketplace program recognizes organizations that use renewable energy and carbon offsets and enables them to demonstrate their environmental commitment to their stakeholders through the use of the nationally recognized Green-e® logo and additional promotional tools. In 2018, the Green-e® Marketplace program welcomed Church & Dwight, which committed to purchasing renewable energy for its Arm & Hammer Baking Soda brands. In addition, Church & Dwight has committed to labeling more products with the Green-e® logo.
Overall, Marketplace participants purchased or generated approximately 550,000 MWh of renewable energy in 2018, which is enough to power over 50,000 households for a year.
Vitafusion is one of the first brands in the Church & Dwight family to use the Green-e® logo.
- Based on consumption levels in 2018 according to the US Energy Information Administration, https://www.eia.gov/electricity/data.php#sales
- Based on total U.S. wind power according to AWEA, https://www.awea.org/wind-101/basics-of-wind-energy/wind-facts-at-a-glance
The charts below are interactive. Click on the items in the legend to change the display.
Green-e® Energy Certified Retail Sales by Product Type (MWh)
Green‑e® Energy Certified Sales by Customer Type (in MWh)
Number of Retail Customers Purchasing Green‑e® Energy Certified Products by Type
Contributions of Renewable Resource Types to Total Green‑e® Energy Certified Retail Sales
Total Number of Facilities by Resource Type
Megawatt-Hours by Facility Date of First Operation or Repowering
Count of Facilities by Year of First Operation or Repowering
Total Green‑e® Energy Certified Sales of Renewable Energy by Product Type and Customer Type (in MWh)
|Residential (Retail)||Non-Residential (Retail)||Wholesale|
|RECs, PPAs, and VPPAs||742,000||49,687,000||14,467,000|
|Community Choice Aggregation||636,000||507,000|
Top Ten States and Provinces Supplying Renewable Energy to Green-e® Energy Certified Retail Sales by Percent of Total Certified MWh
|State/Province||% of Total|
Supply for Green-e® Energy Certified Retail Transactions
Sales of Green-e® Energy Certified Retail Transactions
Green-e® Energy Certified Sales of Renewable Energy Certificates (including PPAs & VPPAs Certified as RECs) by Customer Type
|2018 Sales (MWh, rounded)||MWh: % Change from 2017||% of Total Retail REC Sales||Customers|
Green‑e® Energy Certified Sales in Green Pricing Programs by Customer Type
|2018 Sales (MWh, rounded)||MWh: % Change From 2017||% of Total Green Pricing Sales||Customers|
Green‑e® Energy Certified Sales of Electricity by Electric Service Providers by Customer Type
|2018 Sales (MWh, rounded)||MWh: % Change From 2017||% of Total Competitive Electricity Retail Sales||Customers|
Table 8: Green-e® Energy Certified Sales of Community Choice Aggregation Providers by Customer Type
|2018 Sales (MWh, rounded)||MWh: % Change From 2017||% of Total Competitive Electricity Retail Sales||Customers||Customers: % Change From 2017||Average Purchase Size (in MWh)|