Center for Resource Solutions (CRS), through its Green-e® certification programs, certified more than 114 million megawatt-hours in retail transactions in 2022, representing an overall increase of about 4% compared to 2021 sales. This is the highest number of certified retail MWh to date, and enough to power four out of five U.S. households for a month.



Green-e® Energy certified retail sales reached more than 114 million megawatt-hours (MWh) in 2022, the highest number of certified retail MWh to date. A lot of this was driven by Green-e® Direct procurement through a PPA or VPPA, which increased by 26% from 2021.  CRS currently certifies over 2.7% of the total U.S. electricity mix. More than half of the installed wind capacity in the U.S. is participating in Green-e® Energy certified transactions, and 2022 saw over 12.8 million MWh come from solar generation.  Around half of the energy supplying certified sales and overall generating capacity came from facilities less than 5 years old.

In 2022, there were 1.3 million retail purchasers of Green-e® certified renewable energy, including almost 314,000 businesses and more than a million residential customers.


As the global retail standard for carbon offset certification, Green-e® Climate brings chain-of-custody oversight to the voluntary offset market. Green-e® Climate provides critical retail protections and assurances for buyers, sellers, and project standards, including confidence in product marketing and overall quality.

Green-e® Climate certified sales reached about 394,000 carbon offsets in 2022.


Green-e® Marketplace verifies that the renewable energy purchased or generated by program participants meets the strict environmental and consumer protection standards of the Green-e® Energy certification program, and that each participant purchases qualifying amounts relative to electricity usage. Green-e® Marketplace licenses the Green-e® logo to participants for use with their renewable energy claims.

The total number of companies participating in Green-e® Marketplace in 2022 was 32, with more than 800 products certified by the end of the year.

Program Reports


For over 25 years, Green-e® Energy has been the leading global certification program for renewable energy products sold to consumers and businesses. Certified products are required to undergo an independent annual audit to demonstrate compliance with the program’s rigorous consumer protection and environmental standards. Sellers of certified renewable energy products are required to provide full and accurate information to their customers, deliver the renewable energy sold with sole title, and source from renewable energy generators that meet the Green-e® Energy program’s rigorous resource eligibility requirements.

As the public’s awareness of the impacts of pollution arising from electricity generation, energy security issues, and sustainable economic development has risen, the demand for renewable energy has increased greatly, as shown in this report. In fact, voluntary certified renewable energy sales in the U.S. have increased an average of 17% each year since 2017. When the Green-e® Energy program began in 1997, it was the first certification program of its kind, and it remains the leading global renewable energy certification program.

Green-e® Energy Certified Options

Green-e® Energy certified renewable energy products are sold in the following different options:

Green Pricing Programs. Renewable electricity sold by electric utilities in regulated electricity markets, offered in addition to the renewable electricity included in standard electricity service. Includes Green Tariffs offered to larger commercial or industrial customers.

Competitive Renewable Electricity. Similar to a green pricing program, but sold by an electric service provider (ESP) in a deregulated electricity market.

Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs). A REC represents the non-electricity, renewable attributes of one MWh of renewable electricity generation, including all the environmental attributes, and is a tradable commodity that can be sold separately from the underlying electricity. RECs allow for a larger and more efficient national market for renewable energy. The REC product type includes PPAs and VPPAs for which only the REC portion of the purchase is certified.

Community Choice Aggregation (CCA). Also known as Municipal Aggregation, CCAs allow cities and counties to aggregate customers in a regulated electricity market within a defined jurisdiction to secure alternative electricity supply contracts on a community-wide basis.

Direct and On-Site Certification. Direct Purchasing is a purchase made directly from renewable generators as an alternative to purchasing from a utility, competitive electricity supplier, or a renewable energy certificate marketer. On-Site renewable energy is consumed at the same location where it is produced.

Green-e® Energy Participant Overview

158 companies participated in Green-e® Energy in 2022 including:

  • 97 sellers offering 105 Green-e® Energy certified REC products
  • 228 utility green pricing program participants offering 49 certified green pricing programs*
  • 6 competitive electricity suppliers offering 12 certified renewable electricity programs
  • 8 Community Choice Aggregation sellers offering 11 products
  • 13 entities with 17 different certified Direct or Onsite options

* Retail Distributors not listed below

3Degrees Inc.
3Phases Renewables
ACT Commodities Inc. (Amsterdam Capital Trading B.V.)
AEP Energy, Inc.
Aggressive Energy
Alameda Municipal Power
Albedo Lessor 2, LLC
Algonquin Power
ALLETE Clean Energy
Ambit Energy, LP
Ameren Missouri
American PowerNet
Apple, Inc.
Austin Energy
Avangrid (formerly Iberdrola Renewables)
Blue Delta Energy, LLC
Bonneville Environmental Foundation (BEF)
BP Energy
Brazoria West Solar Project, LLC
Brookfield Renewables
BTR Energy
Bullfrog Power
Calpine Energy Solutions, LLC
Carbon Solutions Group
Champion Energy Marketing, LLC
City of Palo Alto Utilities
City of San Jose
City of SF
Clean Power Alliance
Clearway Energy Group
Clearway Renew LLC
Colorado Springs Utilities
Constellation NewEnergy
Corning Incorporated
Direct Energy
Direct Energy Marketing Limited
Direct Energy Residential
Dominion Virginia Power
DTE Energy
Duke Energy
Duke Energy Frontier Windpower II
Duke Energy Renewable Advantage
East Bay Community Energy
EDF Energy Services
Element Markets Emissions LLC
Elm Branch Solar 1, LLC
EMD Millipore Corp.
Enel Trading North America, LLC
Enel X Way
Energy Harbor LLC (Formerly FirstEnergy Solutions Corp.)
Engie Generation North America
ENGIE Resources (formerly Suez Energy Resource NA, Inc.)
Entergy Arkansas
Entergy Louisiana
Entergy New Orleans
Fathom Energy
Fern Solar LLC
First Climate Markets
First Point Power
Freepoint Energy Solutions
GO2 Markets
Green Mountain Energy Company
Green Power EMC
Greenberg Traurig, LLP
GreenEnergy GPO

Greenlight Energy Group LLC
Homefield Energy
Idaho Power Company
Indianapolis Power & Light Company (AES)
Just Energy
Kiwi Energy
Lenzing Fibers
LG&E and KU Energy (formerly E.ON U.S.)
Longroad Energy Services, LLC
Luminant Energy Company, LLC
MC Squared Energy Services
MCE Clean Energy
Merrill Lynch Commodities Inc
MidAmerican Energy Company Energy Trading
MidAmerican Energy Services
MN8 Energy Marketing, LLC
Mozart Wind LLC
MP2 Energy
Muscatine Power & Water
National Grid Renewables
Natural Capital Partners
NC GreenPower
New Brunswick Energy Marketing
NextEra Energy Resources, LLC
Northern Indiana Public Service Company
NV Energy
Pacific Gas and Electric
PacifiCorp Rocky Mountain
Peninsula Clean Energy
Platte River Power Authority
Portland General Electric
Puget Sound Energy
Reliant Energy
Sacramento Municipal Utility District
San Diego Gas & Electric
Santee Cooper
Schneider Electric (formerly Renewable Choice Energy)
Seattle City Light
Shell Energy North America
Silicon Valley Clean Energy
Silicon Valley Power – City of Santa Clara
Skyview Ventures
Smart Charging Technologies
Sol Madison Solar, LLC
Sol Systems
SolRiver Capital
South Plains Wind Energy II, LLC
Southern California Edison
SP Cactus Flats Wind Energy LLC
Spring Power and Gas
Steelcase Inc.
Sterling Planet, Inc.
STX Commodities
Swiss Carbon Assets
Tennessee Valley Authority
TXU Energy
United Energy Trading (Formerly Blue Spruce Energy Services)
Vertis Environmental Finance Plc
Vivorex LLC
We Energies
Western Farmers Electric Cooperative
WGL Energy Services
World Fuel Services Corporation
Xcel Energy

Consumer Protection

The Green-e® Energy verification audit and review process protects customers by ensuring that the renewable electricity or RECs purchased and sold by the participating provider meet the environmental and impact-related standards required by the Green-e® Renewable Energy Standard for Canada and the United States (“Standard”), and that the RECs were not sold to more than one customer, and only one party has claimed use of that MWh of renewable energy. Replacement RECs are required when supply that has been submitted for verification is ineligible for certification under the Standard. Common reasons for ineligible RECs are double claims (meaning another entity in the chain of custody has claimed to be using the renewable energy) and product-specific restrictions (such as deviation from the geographic-proximity requirements of electricity products). In 2022, the Green-e® Energy audit identified a negligible amount of reported supply as ineligible for Green-e® Energy certification which would necessitate procurement of replacement supply by participants. This is due to a sustained market education outreach by Green-e® program staff and increased due diligence on the part of Green-e® Energy participants in procuring supply.

Green-e® Climate

Green-e® Climate is the global retail standard for carbon offset certification, bringing chain-of-custody oversight to the voluntary offset market. Green-e® Climate provides critical retail protections and assurances for buyers, sellers, and project standards, including confidence in product marketing and overall quality.

In 2022 the Green-e® Climate program certified almost over 396,000 mtCO2e (metric tons carbon dioxide-equivalent).

Green-e® Climate Certified Sales (in mtCO2e)

Metric Tons Carbon Dioxide-Equivalent (mtCO2e)

Residential purchases of Green-e® Climate certified offsets increased as more retailers of natural gas bundle their gas products with carbon offsets. In 2022, more than 147,600 residential customers purchased certified offsets, a slight increase. Sales of bundled natural gas-carbon offsets accounted for 37% of overall certified sales, and all-time high. Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) building certification, which requires Green-e® Climate certification (or equivalent) for offsets to be awarded points for LEED certification, is still a large driver of certified sales, with about 18% of certified sales in 2022 attributed to sales for LEED building certification.

International sales of Green-e® Climate certified offsets continued to be an important segment of sales in 2022. The total volume of international certified carbon offset sales decreased to 34,000 mtCO2e, and in 2022 buyers were located in: Canada, Chile, China, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, India, Italy, Ireland, Japan, Korea, Luxembourg, Mexico, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Singapore, South Korea, Spain, and the United Arab Emirates, as well as the United States.

International Sales of Green-e® Climate Certified Offsets (in mtCO2e)

Metric Tons Carbon Dioxide-Equivalent (mtCO2e)

Sales of Green-e® Climate Certified Offsets Bundled With Gas

Share of Green-e® Climate Certified Sales for LEED Building Certification

2022 once again saw a diverse mix of projects providing carbon offsets to Green-e® Climate certified sales. Overall, 41 different projects supplied offsets to Green-e® Climate certified sales. Offsets from forestry and land use projects provided the majority of supply while landfill methane capture was the most-used project type.

Percentage of Green-e® Climate Certified MTCO2e by Offset Project Type

Percentage of Unique Offset Projects in Green-e® Climate Certified Sales by Project Type

Green-e® Marketplace

Green-e® Marketplace recognizes organizations that use renewable energy and carbon offsets and enables them to demonstrate their environmental commitment to their stakeholders through the use of the internationally recognized Green-e® logo and supporting promotional tools. In 2022, the Green-e® Marketplace program welcomed Be Electric Studios and Kao. Overall, Green-e® Marketplace participants purchased or generated approximately 2,612,000 MWh of renewable energy in 2022.


The charts below are interactive. Click on the items in the legend to change the display.

Green-e® Energy Certified Retail Sales by Product Type (MWh)

RECs, PPAs, and VPPAs
Green Pricing
Competitive Electricity
Community Choice Aggregation
Direct and On-Site

In 2022, Green-e® Energy certified retail sales totaled 114,518,000 MWh, an overall increase of 3.5% compared to 2021 sales. Green-e® Energy certified sales increased at an average rate of 17% per year over the past four years. Renewable Energy Certificate (REC) sales—either in the form of standalone RECs, in a power purchase agreement, or in a virtual power purchase agreement—continue to drive the majority of certified sales, and grew by 3% in 2022. Certified sales through green pricing programs offered by regulated utilities grew by 12% compared to 2021.  However, the effects of high prices in the market and major supply constraints in certain regions of the country impacted sales of competitive electricity and Community Choice Aggregation (CCA) products. With supply in the West being particularly expensive and often already dedicated, CCAs were forced to look outside of their regions to source supply or were unable to give required geographic disclosures to their customers in a timely fashion, rendering them unable to be certified. Direct and On-Site certified MWh continued to grow in 2022, from 3.4 million to 4.3 million certified MWh, an increase of 26%.

Note: The “RECS, PPAs, and VPPAs” category includes all certified REC transactions, including RECs that are part of Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) and Virtual Power Purchase Agreement (VPPA) deals.

Green‑e® Energy Certified Sales by Customer Type (in MWh)


In terms of MWh by customer type, sales to residential customers dropped by about 4% from 2021, likely due to the impacts of high REC prices caused by supply constraints on residential customers. At the same time, sales to non-residential customers slightly increased, accounting for the vast majority of certified MWh purchased at more than 108 million MWh and accounting for the growth in purchasing seen in 2022. This represents 95% of the overall market, a much higher share than usual. Output from facilities dedicated to specific corporate entities through either PPA or VPPA contracts is likely responsible for much this growth. MWh sold as certified wholesale transactions came in at 13 million MWh in 2022. Although there are significantly more residential customers that purchase Green-e® Energy certified renewable energy, they tend to purchase smaller amounts than non-residential customers.

Note: The “RECS, PPAs, and VPPAs” category includes all certified REC transactions, including RECs that are part of PPA and VPPA deals.

Number of Retail Customers Purchasing Green‑e® Energy Certified Products by Type

RECs, PPAs, and VPPAs
Green Pricing
Competitive Electricity
Community Choice Aggregation

2022 again saw a decrease in the overall amount of customers purchasing certified retail options for the third straight year as sellers continued to deal with the uncertainty of supply constraints. The number of customers enrolled in a certified green pricing option actually remained steady in 2022 at 846,000 customers. The number of customers enrolled in a certified CCA offering fell to just under 50,000 while competitive electricity buyers dropped to almost 19,000 customers. The increase in utility customers versus other customers may demonstrate that utilities are more liquid when navigating the pitfalls of supply constraints than other electricity load serving entities. The number of consumers buying unbundled RECs fell by about 8% to almost 377,000 customers, but it’s still much higher than in years past. This suggests that one way that sellers are dealing with supply constraints is by offering REC-only product to their customers rather than a bundled electricity product.

Note: The “RECS, PPAs, and VPPAs” category includes all certified REC transactions, including RECs that are part of PPA and VPPA deals, and only CCA customers that actively opt into certified programs in these totals are counted, not all CCA customers.

States with Green‑e® Energy Certified Renewable Electricity Options

Many customers throughout the U.S. have the option to purchase Green-e® Energy certified renewable energy through their local utility or electric service provider. In 2022, bundled certified renewable electricity options were available in 29 states and Washington, D.C. RECs unbundled from electricity are available to buyers across Canada and the U.S. Businesses purchasing large MWh volumes tend to purchase unbundled RECs, often from multiple locations, while residential customers and businesses purchasing smaller volumes tend to purchase a bundled electricity product available through their utility or electric service provider.

Green-e® Energy also certified sales in Chile, Singapore and Taiwan R.O.C.

Contributions of Renewable Resource Types to Total Green‑e® Energy Certified Retail Sales

Wind (86%)
Solar (11%)
Non-Gaseous Biomass (2%)
Low-Impact Hydro (.4%)
Gaseous Biomass (.1%)
Geothermal (.01%)

In 2022, Green-e® Energy sales sourced from a range of renewable generation across the United States and Canada. The resource mix of the voluntary market is still very wind heavy, with wind facilities accounting for 86% of the total supply. This is similar to last year.  Just six years ago, solar contributed only 250,000 MWh to certified sales, while in 2022 solar provided 12.8 million MWh. The other resource types saw decreases in shares compared to 2021; much of the gaseous biomass that was formerly used to generate electricity is now being used in various renewable fuels programs.

Contributions of Non-Wind Resource Types to Total Green‑e® Energy Certified Retail Sales

Non-Gaseous Biomass
Low-Impact Hydro
Gaseous Biomass

The growth of solar over the past 7 years has been staggering.  Removing wind from the equation for display purposes, this chart demonstrates how rapid that growth has been in terms of certified MWh, while other resource types have remained steady or decreased.  All told, there has been a 1900% increase of solar generation in Green-e® Energy Certified retail sales since 2016.

Total Number of Facilities by Resource Type

Solar (55%)
Wind (41%)
Non-Gaseous Biomass (2%)
Gaseous Biomass (2%)
Low-Impact Hydro (1%)
Geothermal (.08%)

Over 1,300 unique generation facilities with a total capacity of over 90,000 MW supplied Green-e® Energy certified products in 2022. The number of solar facilities used to supply Green-e® Energy certified products continues to grow. Counting rooftop solar buyback programs offered by electricity providers as one facility for each provider, the number of unique solar facilities utilized in 2022 reached more than 700 unique facilities, or more than half of all facilities used to supply certified sales. 2022 also saw tremendous growth in an already impressive cohort of wind resources supplying certified sales. Wind compromises the vast majority of total capacity of facilities supplying certified sales, with nearly three times more capacity than all other resources combined, as shown in the next chart.

Total Facility Capacity (MW) by Resource Type

Wind (73,100)
Solar (15,000)
Non-Gaseous Biomass (900)
Gaseous Biomass (900)
Low-Impact Hydro (200)
Geothermal (33)

Megawatt-Hours by Facility Date of First Operation or Repowering


Only new renewables are eligible to meet the criteria in the Standard. In North America, that means eligible renewable facilities must have started operation or have been deemed repowered in the last 15 years, or otherwise been approved for extended use in order to provide generation to a Green-e® Energy certified product. In 2022, more than half of the MWh used to supply certified sales came from facilities that were less than 5 years old. In recent years, that number has usually been at around a third of total facilities. This shows a continued trend of more newly built generators being dedicated to supply the voluntary market rather than being used for other purposes.

Capacity (MW) by Facility Date of First Operation


In 2022 more than half of the MWh used to supply certified sales came from facilities that were less than five years old, demonstrating consistent turnover of older facilities and how generation from many newly built facilities is being used for voluntary purposes. This is similar to 2021 but a greater number than in previous years.

Count of Facilities by Year of First Operation or Repowering

Newer facilities accounted for a large portion of certified sales in 2022. Facilities five years or younger comprised over 41% of all facilities that provided any amount of MWh to Green-e® Energy certified sales, which is slightly more than in 2021. This again illustrates how the voluntary market can drive new build. It may also show the preference of corporate buyers for their investment to be a factor in getting new generation built.

Total Green‑e® Energy Certified Sales of Renewable Energy by Product Type and Customer Type (MWh)

Residential (Retail)Non-Residential (Retail)Wholesale
RECs, PPAs, and VPPAs636,00095,977,00013,351,000
Green Pricing4,806,0005,739,000
Competitive Electricity112,0001,279,000
Direct and On-Site 4,330,000
Community Choice Aggregation118,000769,000
Total Sales5,672,000108,094,00013,351,000
Total Retail:113,766,000MWh
Total Unique Certified:122,366,000MWh
Total Certified Transactions127,117,000MWh

The total volume of all Green‑e® Energy certified transactions in 2022 reached 127 million MWh. This total represents all transactions—including both certified retail sales to electricity end users looking to make a green power use claim, and wholesale sales to resellers of renewable MWh that did not claim the renewable electricity or RECs themselves. Green-e® Energy certified retail transactions reached 114 million MWh, while certified wholesale transactions reached 13 million MWh in 2022. Of these certified wholesale transactions, around 9 million MWh were resold in certified retail transactions. The remaining 4 million MWh were sold in non–certified transactions to utilities, electric service providers, power marketers, and other buyers in the voluntary market. Removing the instances of renewable MWh certified by Green-e® Energy at both the wholesale and retail levels, certified sales of over 122.4 million unique MWh were made in 2022, a slight increase from 2021 and the highest total of certified unique MWh to date.

Note: The “RECS, PPAs, and VPPAs” category includes all certified REC transactions, including RECs that are part of PPA and VPPA deals.

Top 10 States by Retail Sales Volume

State% of Total Sales

Green-e® Energy program staff collects data on the number of retail customers by state and the MWh of certified products provided to them. The top 10 states in terms of sales volume have remained relatively constant over the past few years and are typically states with large, sustainable-minded corporate entities. In 2022, Texas became the state with the highest volume of MWh for certified retail sales.  The top 10 states represent 73% of the total volume of certified retail sales, while the top 3 states alone represent nearly half of all MWh of retail sales. 2022 also marked the fifth year that sales outside of North America were certified, in Chile, Singapore and Taiwan R.O.C.

Percent of Total Retail Customers by State (Includes REC Sales)

State% of Customers

Retail customers are buying Green-e® Energy certified renewable energy throughout the U.S. In 2022, 79% of retail customers were located in these top 10 states. Despite the supply constraints faced in the West, the 3 largest customer bases are the West Coast states: California, Oregon and Washington. There is a large degree of overlap between this list and the “Top Ten” retail sales volume list, with the key point of difference in the purchase size of residential and non-residential customers. The states with the highest volumes have more non-residential customers.

Top Ten States and Provinces Supplying Renewable Energy to Green-e® Energy Certified Retail Sales by Percent of Total Certified MWh

State/Province% of Total

79% of the renewable energy certified by Green-e® Energy was sourced from 10 states. Supply from both Texas and Oklahoma account for 55% of the total supply of renewable electricity certified in 2022, which is a bit more than in 2021. This is primarily related to the high wind content in many certified products, and the high rate of potential for (and installation of) wind facilities in the Midwest and Southern states such as Texas and Oklahoma. The difference between states that supply certified sales versus states that have purchasers of certified sales demonstrates how the market for unbundled RECs is allowing customers with limited access to local renewable energy products to support changes in generation portfolios throughout North America.

Sales of Green-e® Energy Certified Retail Transactions

Supply for Green-e® Energy Certified Retail Transactions

Green-e® Energy Certified Sales of Renewable Energy Certificates (including PPAs & VPPAs Certified as RECs) by Customer Type

2022 Sales (MWh, rounded)MWh: % Change from 2021% of Total Retail REC Sales Customers
Total Retail92,587,000-10%100.0%377,000
Wholesale13,351,000-60% 121

Certified REC declined slightly 2022. The market is still driven by non-residential customers and 2022 saw around an additional 50,000 C&I customers purchasing unbundled RECs than in 2021.

Green‑e® Energy Certified Sales in Green Pricing Programs by Customer Type

2022 Sales (MWh, rounded)MWh: % Change From 2021% of Total Green Pricing Sales Customers
Total Retail10,544,00012%100%847,000

Many customers can purchase a bundled renewable electricity product from their local electric utility. Utility green pricing programs certified by Green-e® Energy consistently make up the majority of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s rankings in terms of customer participation rate, total number of subscribers, total MWh sold, and green power sales as a percentage of total retail electricity sales. In 2022, these programs increased 12% mainly due to a 27% increase in the number of non-residential customers. 2022 saw the highest MWh total of Green-e® Energy certified renewable energy sold through green pricing programs ever.

Green‑e® Energy Certified Sales of Electricity by Electric Service Providers by Customer Type

2022 Sales (MWh, rounded)MWh: % Change From 2021% of Total Competitive Electricity Retail SalesCustomers
Total Retail1,391,000-38%100%19,000

After growth in 2021, we saw competitive electricity products drop in 2022. This is largely the result of corporate customers purchasing more MWh in competitive markets like TX.

Green-e® Energy Certified Sales of Community Choice Aggregation Providers by Customer Type

2022 Sales (MWh, rounded)MWh: % Change From 2021% of Total CCA Retail SalesCustomers
Total Retail887,00024%100%35,400

Community Choice Aggregation (CCA, also known as Municipal Aggregation) programs allow cities and counties to aggregate customers in a regulated market within a defined jurisdiction to secure alternative electricity supply contracts on a community-wide basis. We saw 24% more certified CCA MWh in 2022, driven by 24% growth in amount that non-residential customers purchased.